Resultados: 68

    Policy brief 12: how can gender equity be addressed through health systems?

    Gender differences in health and in how well health systems and health care services meet the needs of women and men are well known: in Europe, there are variations in terms of life expectancy, the risk of mortality and morbidity, health behaviours and in the use of health care services. There is also in...

    Policy summary 6: promoting health, preventing disease: is there an economic case?

    A core question for policy-makers will be the extent to which investments in preventive actions that address some of the social determinants of health represent an effi cient option to help promote and protect population health. Can they reduce the level of ill health in the population? How strong is the...

    Policy brief: when do vertical (stand-alone) programmes have a place in health systems?

    The terms vertical and integrated are widely used in health service delivery, but each describes a range of phenomena. In practice, the dichotomy between them is not rigid, and the extent of verticality or integration varies between programmes – including (1) a vertically funded, managed, delivered and...

    Policy brief: how can optimal skill mix be effectively implemented and why?

    Skill-mix initiatives focus on changing professional roles - directly and indirectly.They change roles directly through extension of roles or skills, delegation, andthe introduction of a new type of worker; they change them indirectly throughmodifications of the interface between services - that is, wher...

    Policy summary 5: health policy responses to the financial crisis in Europe

    When confronted by an economic shock affecting the health sector, policymakers may decide to maintain, decrease or increase current levels of public expenditure on health. With each option they could also reallocate funds within the health system to enhance efficiency. A range of tools can be used to alt...

    Where are the patients in decision-making about their own care?

    The policy issue: patient engagementOccasionally, all citizens have to make important health decisions that affecthealth outcomes. Strategies to support patient education and engagementshould therefore be a fundamental plank of health policy. Also, patients canplay an important role in understanding the ...

    How to create an attractive and supportive working environment for health professionals

    European countries face common challenges in ensuring a well-performing health workforce in times of existing and projected shortages. One of the multiple aspects that determine the supply and performance of health workers is the work environment, which plays a critical role. Given the demographic change...

    WHO recommendations: optimizing health worker roles to improve access to key maternal and newborn health interventions through task shifting

    Human resource shortages in the health services are widely acknowledged as a threat to the attainment of the healthrelated Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Attempts to optimize the potential of the existing health workforce are therefore crucial. A more rational distribution of tasks and responsibili...

    How can European health systems support investment in and the implementation of population health strategies?

    Key messagesPolicy issue and associated policy challenges• Population health is influenced by a variety of factors, many of whichrequire action outside the health system.• The health and socioeconomic costs of the key contributors to poor healthin Europe are substantial. Many of these health problems...

    Policy brief: how can the migration of health service professionals be managed so as to reduce any negative effects on supply?

    The international migration of health professionals has been a growingfeature of the global health agenda since the late 1990s. In Europe, theaccession of more countries to the European Union (EU) since 2004 hasincreased the scope for mobility among health workers and raisedadditional issues within the E...